1001 - 1500

1001 - 1500, gorizians

Goriziais officially mentioned for the first time on 28th April 1001; in a document in which the emperor Otto III (in the miniature beside) donates the castle of Salcano (Sylicanum, in Latin) and the "villa un manero", called "Goritia" (from the Slavic diction "gorica", that is "montagnola") half to the Patriarch of Aquileia, and the other half to the Count of Friuli Guariento of the Eppenstein family. This double attribution was always a cause of friction between Gorizia and Aquileia. The term "villa" suggests that at the time there was still no castle on the hill. Even if for many historians it is very probable that there were already fortifications on the hill, already in the Longobard period, (perhaps a watchtower), it is widely believed that a real manor was built starting from the 12th century. Gorizia faces the "official" and documented history after a tragic century, characterized by the cruel invasions of the Hungarians, who not only plundered Friuli, but also impoverished it to the point of unhinging any trace of established order. Added to this were the spiritual anxieties of a millennium that was about to end under the most sinister auspices synthesized by the fear of the end of the world: "A thousand and no longer a thousand". "After five decades of devastation -as the Friulian historian Mor tells us- the Marca (Friulian) appeared as a pile of ruins, in a desolate and depopulated wasteland". In 955 the emperor Otto I defeated the Hungarians definitively in a great battle near Augsburg, in Bavaria, which posed the problem of the safety of the territory of the Marca and its rebirth. Emperor Ottone I began the so-called "incastellamento" of Friuli: the Germanic emperors provided for an administrative reorganization of the whole area entrusting the various villas and territories to their faithful vassals who, obeying the imperial directives, erected numerous fortifications, destined to become the hundreds of castles that still today embellish Friuli-Venezia Giulia. The origins of the dynasty of the Counts of Gorizia are not completely clear. The possession of the Gorizia area remained in the hands of the Eppenstein family until this dynasty was called to govern the Carinthian dukedom (in 1090), and then became extinct between 1122 and 1125.

11th century

21/03/2020

Gorizia was officially mentioned for the first time on 28th April 1001; in a document in which the emperor Otto III donated the castle of Salcano (Sylicanum, in Latin) and the "villa un manero", called "Goritia" (from the Slavic diction "gorica", that is "montagnola") half to the Patriarch of Aquileia, and the other half to the Count of Friuli...

From Aquileia to Gorizia, from Udine to Cividale, from Gradisca to Palmanova, a Middle Ages "border", that of Friuli, almost unknown but essential for the development of Europe to come. History, culture, wars and conflicts, but also the unprecedented encounter of the three main European civilizations, the Latin, the Slavic and the Germanic, which...

The Middle Ages in the far North-East of Italy - or the Austrian South-West - have been ignored or underestimated especially after the rise of the nationalisms of the last century. In particular that of the region now called Friuli Venezia Giulia and the neighbouring territories, so rich in events that were sometimes extraordinary but also...

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History, XII - XIII centuries

History, XIV century