1700s

GORIZIANS - 1700s


'700, il secolo d'oro

The seventeenth century had left the memory of the terrible plague that in 1682 had mowed down the city of Gorizia: the eighteenth century, which many call the golden century of the city, opened under the reign of Giuseppe Primo, one of the protagonists of the Spanish War of Succession, which gave the Habsburgs new and important possessions such as the Duchy of Milan, the Netherlands, the kingdoms of Naples and Sardinia. In any case, we must remember a terribly bloody episode that occurred in 1714, namely the massacre of the Tolminotti, peasants of the city of Tolmino who refused to pay taxes that were too exorbitant and who were executed in Piazza della Vittoria by Hungarian soldiers and on the orders of the notorious aristocrat Girolamo della Torre in tandem with Giacomo Bandeu, the tax collector, who had the theatre in Gorizia built, where the Verdi Theatre stands today. They stop, for the common fight against the Turks, the guerrillas on the border that separates Austria from the Serenissima and the fortresses of Palmanova and Gradisca d'Isonzo. In 1728 Charles VI visited Gorizia and was welcomed with all honours. The provincial states of Gorizia supported him when it came to passing the Prammatica Sanzione and therefore making his only daughter, Maria Teresa, empress, who ascended the throne in 1740 will not forget our city and its territory. It was a small industrial revolution that mainly involved the production and processing of silk, leather and glass. Agriculture received a great impulse, with the establishment of the "Cesarea Regia Società di Agricoltura di Gorizia e Gradisca" while the marshes around Aquileia were reclaimed, increasing the well-being of the population. Gorizia had a direct line with Vienna because of the very close relations of some noble families with the court of the capital. In 1752 Gorizia inherited together with Udine the extraordinary legacy of the Patriarchate of Aquileia, together with half of its Treasury in addition Maria Teresa donated to the New Archbishop a very precious series of religious furnishings and equipment (the Teresian Donation). This patrimony has not yet been made available to the public, even though a special museum has been built to house it. In 1754, still under Maria Theresa, the County was further enlarged by joining that of Gradisca d'Isonzo. The "County Principality of Gorizia and Gradisca" was born. In this picture undoubtedly revolutionary for the time, Gorizia lost a part of its political-administrative independence. The provincial states are in fact supplanted by a Council under the direct orders of Vienna. A triumphant aristocracy and a relatively happy county, to the ears the testimonies of illustrious visitors such as Carlo Goldoni, who came to Gorizia to publish, in 1774, his work Istoria delle Turbolenze della Polonia. And Count Sigismondo d'Attems founded the Accademia dei Filomeleti in 1744. Later, the Roman-Sonziaca Arcadia and the Noble Society of the Knights of Diana Cacciatrice were founded. Part of Maria teresa's benefits were lost under her heir Joseph the Second, who, following an antipontificia policy, abolished the Archbishopric and moved many offices to other provinces. In 1791 the Archdiocese was reconstituted. The construction of the Church of St. Ignatius in Austrian baroque style dates back to the 18th century - see in the picture the church of Vienna - Palazzo Attems santacroce, today seat of the Town Hall and Palazzo Attems Petzestein both by the architect Nicolò Pacassi from Gorizia - see card . But also Palazzo de Bassa, Palazzo Grabiz in via Delle Monache, Palazzetto della Torre de Grazia today seat of the Music School, and churches such as the exaltation of the Cross annexed to the Archiepiscopal Curia and the Church of San Carlo. A century that ended with the bursting into Gorizia of the new world, brought on the French Revolution by MNapoleone Bonaparte who entered the city on March 21, 1797, welcomed without enthusiasm by a population faithful to the Habsburgs.


Plan of the city of Gorizia in 1756 (detail taken from one of the catalogues of Gorizia Barocca saved from the destruction of books during the mayor Brancati's council in 2002-2007)
Plan of the city of Gorizia in 1756 (detail taken from one of the catalogues of Gorizia Barocca saved from the destruction of books during the mayor Brancati's council in 2002-2007)